The light rays pass through our cornea, pupil and get into the lens. Our lens has a task to bend light in order to focus an object on the retina that is located at the back of an eye. Those images pass through the retinal cells and through the optic nerve. They get to the brain where they are processed. Basically, our eyes are similar to the cameras. When there is a buildup of protein in the lens, cataracts occur. This buildup of protein, or cataract, prevents some part of the light rays to pass clearly through the lens, so we have some losses in vision. Old lens cells are compacted into the center and new cells are forming outside of the lens.
There are 4 types of cataract. They are:
- Congenital cataracts. Babies may have this type. They are born with cataracts, due to injury, poor development or an infection. They can also develop cataract during the childhood.
- Age-related cataracts develop as the result of aging.
- Traumatic cataracts are formed due to an eye injury.
- Secondary cataracts develop due to some other medical conditions. Diabetes, radiation, ultraviolet light or certain drugs may be responsible.
Cataracts are forming slowly. They include symptoms like foggy or cloudy vision, progressive nearsightedness, you will see colors differently, double vision, problems driving at night and glare during the day. In order to diagnose the cataract, a doctor must perform an eye exam.
In some cases, cataracts can be solved with glasses. In more severe cases, a surgery is required. It includes removing the clouded lens and replacing it with a new, artificial lens.